RSPO- No new planting on peat 3. The principal operations include milling the top peat layers of a deposit to a depth of 25 mm, drying the milled peat, and gathering the finished product in the form of crumbs. They are found in peatlands (also called bogs or mires). Peat was used in both agriculture and medicine. Many erroneous ideas on the origin of peat were refuted in 1729 by J. Degner, who studied peat with a microscope and demonstrated its plant origin. The age of these buried deposits is measured in tens of millennia. A dark-brown or black residuum produced by the partial decomposition and disintegration of mosses, sedges, trees, and other plants that grow in marshes and other wet places. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. These constituents are extracted with insignificant changes in the original material in the form of ready products or as raw material for further processing. There are 20–28 such cycles in a season and approximately 40–50 cycles when the pneumatic method of collecting the peat is used. The latter extract the peat mass from a layer by means of milling devices that process and spread a layer of peat on the surface of the field. The world’s only plant for the production of alcohol and furfural from weakly decomposed peat is located in Leningrad Oblast. Before the October 1917 Revolution peat was extracted by hand. The rate of filtration through peat varies over several orders of magnitude. The species is characterized by a specific combination of dominant residues of individual plant species and of other, typical residues. contains 40–50 percent carbohydrates; humic acids constitute 50 percent or more of strongly decomposed peat. Peat is formed from the residues of dead plants whose aerial organs have become humified and mineralized in the aerated surface stratum of a bog (the peat-producing horizon) by soil invertebrates, bacteria, and fungi. Silty Soil. The water content of buried peat is less than that of recent peat. The organic matter in peat consists of plant residues that have undergone varying degrees of decomposition. These subtypes differ in degree of decomposition. In the 12th and 13th centuries peat was known as a fuel in Holland and Scotland. Twenty-five primary types of peat bogs are distinguished in the European USSR and 32 in Western Siberia. The soil is … Peat absorbs and retains large quantities of moisture, ammonia, and cations (especially of heavy metals). This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Historical outline. In the 19th century peat was studied by V. V. Dokuchaev, S. G. Navashin, and G.I. Silty soil feels soft and soapy, it holds moisture, is usually very rich in nutrients. Advances in the technology of processing peat are being made in two directions. Indonesia- >300 cm no planting 4. Its physical properties vary with the properties of its individual components, the relative amounts of individual components, and the degree of decomposition or degree of dispersion of the solid mass (as determined by the specific surface or quantity of fractions less than 250 micrometers in diameter). Peat has a complex chemical composition, which is determined by the conditions under which peat-forming plants originated, by the chemical composition of the plants, and by the degree of decomposition. Peat has a lot of important qualities which determine its worth for agriculture: 1. The milling method of obtaining peat was developed in the USSR in the late 1940’s. A hydraulic (hydro-peat) method of extracting peat with complete mechanization of the production processes was developed in the 1920’s and used from 1922 to 1962. See more. Deposits of layer-forming species of varying extent and thickness follow one another in a particular succession to form a peat bog. Peat is a soil material that’s composed primarily of decomposed organic materials. This restricted definition, including only materials which are entirely of vegetative origin, conflicts with several established soil classification systems. These traits/properties mean that different plants, fruits, vegetables, and other things are going to be more suitable for growing in peat soil than others. Some types of strongly decomposed peat contain substantial quantities of bitumens and are used to produce waxes. In excavation with integrated mechanization, the peat is removed from the deposit with a scoop, processed, and pressed into bricks, which are laid on top of the deposit and later collected and stored. 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The rate of decomposition of peat-forming plants in the peat-producing horizon varies with the plant species, the water content, acidity, and temperature of the medium, and the composition of the mineral constituents. Some peat deposits were formed during periods between glaci-ations or became superimposed by loose deposits of varying thickness as a result of change in the level of erosion. The formation of peat acts as a carbon sink, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but that carbon dioxide is released when peatlands dry out naturally or are drained, and when peat is burned. Peat is generally distinguished from soil by its high content of organic compounds —at least 50 percent of the weight after all moisture is removed. It is able to hold onto the roots of plants better and provide a more stable environment than many other types of soil. Soviet researchers identified the geographic patterns of the distribution of peat bogs, classified the types of peat and peat bogs, compiled cadastres and maps of peat bogs, and studied the chemical composition and physical properties of peat. Prominent researchers in this field included I. D. Bogdanovskaia-Gienef, E. A. Galkina, D. A. Gerasimov, V. S. Dokturovskii, E. K. Iva-nov, N. Ia. Several primary peat species, differing little from each other in properties and forming large, homogeneous, horizontal beds, are called layer-forming species. peat synonyms, peat pronunciation, peat translation, English dictionary definition of peat. Peat Soil. Silty soil is composed of clay, mud, or small rocks deposited by a lake or river. From the 1930’s to the 1950’s, peat was used in power engineering, in the production of gas, and as a nonindustrial fuel. Geomorphological, geological, hydro-geological, and hydrological conditions prevailing in each part of a bog influence the structure of a deposit in a given climatic zone. Formation. This preparation helps lower the groundwater level and reduce the moisture content of the peat bog to 86–89 percent, thereby increasing the efficiency of the machines used to extract, dry, and harvest the peat. The type of peat bog is the primary unit of classification (Figure 1). Peat containing vivianite is used as a phosphorus fertilizer, and peat with lime as a lime fertilizer. peaty or organo mineral soils (km2) Deep peaty or organic soils (km2) Peat-forming bogs (km2) Peat-fens (km2) England 7,386 6,799 2,727 80 Wales 3,592 706 718 62 Northern Ireland 1,417 2,064 1,069 30 Scotland 34,612 17,269 17,720 86 Total area 47,007 26,838 22,775 258 UK area cover 19.3% 11% 9.35% 0.11% * Either existing or planned for restoration High-moor peat provides good bedding for cattle and poultry. There are 51 million ha in Western Europe, more than 100 million ha in Asia, and more than 18 million ha in North America. Kids Definition of peat. peat, soil material consisting of partially decomposed organic matter, found mainly in swamps and bogs in various parts of the northern temperate zone but also in some semitropical and tropical regions. The most effective way to store peat and prevent spontaneous combustion is to insulate the piles from the air with a layer of wet peat. There are two types: sphagnum peat is produced partially decayed sphagnum moss, and sedge peat from partially decayed sedges and heathers. The first is based on isolating individual constituents—bitumens, humic acids, carbohydrates, and so on. Peat is mechanically processed by various working elements: augers, augers and blades, spiral cones, cones, slits, and crushing and grinding devices. The underground organs in an anaerobic medium are preserved, and they form the structural, or fibrous, part of peat. Peat, or turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation.Peat forms in wetland bogs, moors, mires, and swamps.. Despite the annual growth of the dead organic mass, the peat-producing horizon maintains its own independent existence as a natural “factory” for the production of peat. The places where peat is formed, peat bogs, are found in river valleys (floodplains and terraces) and at water divides. It is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs. Partly decomposed vegetable matter, usually mosses, found in bogs and sometimes burned as fuel or mixed into soil to improve growing conditions. Humus imparts a dark color to peat. Exploitation of peat deposits. Well-aerated and thoroughly decomposed peat is used to mulch seeded fields. Peat is extracted in the USSR by milling (more than 95 percent of the total commercial extraction), excavation, and the deep-pit method. In the 16th and 17th centuries, coke and tar were obtained from peat by roasting. WILMAR- Zero Peat 2. Peaty briquettes are produced by pressure of dry crushed peat at special fourth estates at plants and factories. This is the most qualitative peaty fuel which is used at boiler houses and by population. Peatlands cover about 3% of the earth’s land mass; they are found in the temperate (Northern Europe and America) and tropical regions (South East Asia, South America, South Africa and the Caribbean) 1. For example, weakly decomposed high-moor peat. Fibers found in the soil, especially in peaty soil play an important role in the determination of soil compressibility. n. Partly decomposed vegetable matter, usually mosses, found in bogs and sometimes burned as fuel or mixed into soil to improve growing conditions. For example, more than 70 percent of the reserves in the Central Zone of the RSFSR has been thoroughly surveyed, compared to 0.6 percent in Western Siberia, where 82.8 percent of the reserves has undergone only preliminary investigation. Peat typically has a high moisture content in the natural state (88–96 percent), high porosity (up to 96–97 percent), and high compressibility. Research on the use of peat in power technology was carried out in the 1950’s. Woody matter in the layer to be worked is removed to a depth of 25–40 cm, or it may be ground into fractions less than 8–25 mm in diameter. Peat can be added to soil to help plants grow, or can be burned to produce coal. The woody subtype is highly decomposed (sometimes as much as 80 percent), the swamp subtype is minimally decomposed, and the woody-swamp subtype occupies an intermediate position. Data on peat reserves and extraction in the USSR and abroad are given in Table 2. The three types of peat—high-moor, transitional, and low-moor—are classified according to the composition of the original plant material, conditions under which the peat was formed, and the peat’s physical and chemical properties. Loss of volume (%) of peat soils from drained fen locations. The commercial production of peat semicoke and tar began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A large peatland found in 2014 in N Congo-Brazzaville and neighboring Congo-Kinshasa has since been determined to extend over some 55,000 sq mi (140,000 sq km). Peat reserves have not been investigated equally in all economic regions of the country. The peat bricks are laid out on the field to dry, and the trenches are packed down by the extracting machine. 2.1 Definition of Peat 2.1.1 In Scotland, peat is defined as “an organic soil which contains more than 60 per cent of organic matter and exceeds 50cin thickness”m (Macaulay Institute, 1984). Formation of peat. A layer takes one to two days to dry. Thorough prospecting is done in order to obtain data for plans for the exploitation and utilization of a peat deposit. Peat deposits must be drained and the surface specially prepared before the deposit can be worked. Firs of all, peat makes better the structure of soil. Large deposits of peat in the United States are found in Alaska, Florida, Louisana, Michigan, and California. Summary – What Grows Well In Peat Soil. Classification. Kats, M. I. Neishtadt, N. I. P’iavchenko, V. E. Ra-kovskii, V. N. Sukachev, and S. N. Tiuremnov. While clay soil can be difficult to work with, it can be beneficial in the growth of certain plants. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. The method is completely mechanized and requires less labor and consumption of metal and energy than other methods. Peat with average properties is harvested by machines that intermix the beds or drainage-enrichment machines. Heat- and sound-insulating peat slabs and garden pots made from peat are also produced. Small wood fragments and chips are collected from the surface of the plots by machines with harrows or tractor-drawn drums. peat bog, peatbog; peaty… Other tropical peatlands are found in Indonesia and parts of the Amazon region. Peat forms when plant material, usually in marshy areas, is inhibited from decaying fully by acidic and anaerobic conditions. https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Peaty+soil. The surface of the deposit is divided into individual sections by sighting paths and drainage canals. In the view of some scientists, peat is a precursor of a genetic series of coals. From Cambridge English Corpus Still, the peaty soils were rarely affected and direct impact of fires was visible in soil … Peat soils are the upper portion of peat bog deposits, formed below a layer of particular types of vegetation that thrive under conditions of excess moisture. When dry, weakly decomposed peat is characterized by low porosity (up to 0.3 g/cm3), a low rate of thermal conduction, and a high gas-absorbing capacity. The peatland ecosystem covers 3.7 million square kilometres and is the most efficient carbon sink on the planet, because peatland plants capture CO2 naturally released from the peat, maintaining an equilibrium. Chalk soil is a soil that has a high alkalinity and pH due to the amount of lime and calcium carbonate in the soil. Clay soil has many crevices that can hold onto salts and can make plants unable to grow successfully. The second trend involves the thorough decomposition of peat and the conversion of peat into completely new substances. Peaty soil synonyms, Peaty soil pronunciation, Peaty soil translation, English dictionary definition of Peaty soil. Pressed peat briquettes are used in the USSR and Ireland for nonindustrial purposes. The prototype of the excavation method was the elevator method, by which approximately 1.3 million tons of lump peat were extracted in 1913. Peat is decaying plant material that is found under the ground in some cool, wet regions. The possibility of using peat from a single deposit simultaneously for agricultural and industrial purposes fostered a new trend in peat utilization—the combination use of peat—made possible by the varied properties of the different species types of peat. The world’s first book on peat, A Treatise on Peat by Martin Schoock, was written in Latin and published in Groningen in 1658. It is used to prepare composts, mixtures containing mineral fertilizers and lime, and peat-mineral and peat-mineral-ammonia fertilizers. Prospecting for peat deposits entails an analysis of maps and aerial photographs; the exploration and prospecting stage is supplemented by field work. All the operations involved in preparing the surface are mechanized. Weakly decomposed high-moor peat has a high water- and gas-absorbing capacity and a low coefficient of thermal conductivity. The milling may be done with harrows, cultivators, or drum-type milling machines hooked to tractors. After the Great October Socialist Revolution, research, industrial, and academic organizations were created to make a complete study of peat and its use in the economy; they included the Institute of Peat (Instorf) and the Moscow Peat Institute. Mineral Soils 1. Peat is traditionally defined as being synonymous with turf being partially carbonized vegetable tissue formed in wet conditions by decomposition of various plants and mosses. Strongly decomposed peat finds varied applications in agriculture (see Table 4). The surface is prepared after a drainage network has been set up and preliminary drainage has been finished. The broad strips of bracken glowed red and yellow against the black, These islands, situated in the same latitude with Tierra del Fuego and only between two and three hundred miles distant from it, having a nearly similar climate, with a geological formation almost identical, with favourable situations and the same kind of. Define Peaty soil. Some peat types are rich in bitumens (2–10 percent). They are distributed primarily in the temperate zone of the … Peat moss as a soil amendment is known to improve the quality of the soil. Peat , sometimes known as turf (/tɜːrf/), is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter. In Russia it was the botanical aspect of peat that came under study. The first reference to peat is Pliny the Elder’s description of “combustible earth” for heating food (AD. 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